1Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
2Iranian Citrus Research Center, Ramsar, Mazandaran Province, Iran.
Demographic parameters of the ladybeetle, Serangium montazerii Fursch feeding on citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri Ashmead were determined on two host plants, Page tangerineand Thompson navel orange. This study was carried out under laboratory conditions (25 ± 1 °C and RH of 60 ± 5% and a photoperiod of 16: 8 h (L: D). Total pre-adult periods of the lady beetle were 20.84 ± 0.302, 19.27 ± 0.251days on Page tangerine and Thompson navel orange, respectively. The survivorship from egg to adult were very close to each other on the two host plants. The oviposition periods were 29.64 ± 0.905 and 33.36 ± 0.599 days and the total number of eggs per female (fecundity) were 457.14 ± 11.099 and 528.57 ± 12.369 on Page tangerine and Thompson orange, respectively. Peaks of reproductive value occurred at ages of 31 and 33 days when reared on Thompson navel orange and Page tangerine, respectively. The intrinsic rates of increase (r) on Thompson orange and on Page tangerine were 0.134 ± 0.063 and 0.126 ± 0.006d-1 with no significant differences. The mean generation time (T) on these host plants were 39.03 ± 0.5 and 40.57 ± 0.46 days, respectively. It can be concluded that S. montazerii feeding on D. citri in general showed a slightly better reproductive performance on Thompson navel orange than on Page tangerine.
Agrawal, A. 2000. Mechanisms, ecological consequences and agricultural implications of tri-trophic interactions. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 3: 329-335.
Ahmad, M., and Abboud, R. 2001. A comparative study of Serangium parcesetosum Sicard and Clitostethus arcuatus (Rossi) (Col., Coccinellidae): two predators of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) in Syria. Arab Journal of Plant Protection,19: 40-44.
Al-Zyoud, F. A. 2008. Biology and potential of the Indian ladybird Serangium montazerii on Bemisia tabaci. Jordan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 4 (1): 26-40 .
Al-Zyoud, F. A., Blaeser, P., and Sengonca, C. 2005. Investigations on the biology and prey consumption of the predator, Serangium montazerii Fürsch (Col., Coccinellidae) by feeding on Trialeurodesvaporariorum Westwood (Hom., Aleyrodidae) as prey.Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection,112: 485-496.
Asiimwe, P., Ecaat, J. S., Guershon, M., Kyamanywa, S., Gerling, D., and Legg, J. P. 2007. Evaluation of Serangium n. sp. (Col., Coccinellidae), a predator of Bemisia tabaci (Hom., Aleyrodidae) on cassava.Journal of Applied Entomology, 131 (2): 76-80.
Bevill, T. S. Jr, and Louda, S. M. 1999. Comparison of related rare and common species in the study of plant rarity. Conservative Biology, 13: 493-498.
Birch, L. C. 1948. The intrinsic rate of natural increase of an insect population. Journal Animal Ecology, 17: 15-26.
Carey, J. R. 1993. Applied Demography for Biologists. Oxford University Press, New York.
Chi, H., 1988. Life-table analysis incorporating both sexes and variable development rate among individuals. Environmental Entomology, 17: 26-34.
Chi, H. 1990. Timing of control based on the stage structure of pest population: a simulation approach.Journal of Economic Entomology, 83: 1143-1150.
Chi, H., and Liu, H. 1985. Two new methods for the study of insect population ecology. Bulletin of Institute of Zoological Academy Sinica, 24: 225-240.
Chi, H., and Getz, W. M. 1988. Mass rearing and harvesting based on an age-stage, two-sex life table: a potato tuber worm (Lep.: Gelechiidae) case study. Environmental Entomology, 17: 18-25.
Cortesero, A. M., Stapel, J. O, and Lewis, W. J. 2000. Understanding and manipulating plant attributes to enhance biological control. Biological Control, 17: 35-39.
Du, L., Ge, F., Zhu, S., and Parajulee, M. N. 2004. Effect of cotton cultivar on development and reproduction of Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae) and its predator, Propylaea japonica (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).Journal of Economic Entomology, 97:1278-1283.
Fukunaga, Y., and Akimoto, S. 2007. Toxicity of the aphid Aulacorthum magnoliae to the predator Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and genetic variance in the assimilation of the toxic aphids in H. axyridis larvae.Entomological Science,10:45-53.
Gabre, R. M., Adham, F.K., and Chi, H., 2005. Life table of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Acta Oecology, 27: 179-183.
Giles, K. L., Madden, R. D., Payton, M. E., and Dilwith, J. W. 2000. Survival and development of Chrysoperia rufilabris (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) supplied with pea aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) reared on alfalfa and faba bean. Environmental Entomology,29: 304-311.
Giles, K. L., Madden, R. D., Payton, M. E., and Dilwith, J. W. 2002. Host plants affect
predator fitness via the nutritional value of herbivore prey: investigation of a plant-aphid-ladybeetle system. Biocontrol, 47: 1-21.
Greathead, A. H. 1986. Host plants, In: Cock, M. J. W. [ed.], Bemisia tabaci- a literature survey, CAB International Institute of Biological control, Silwood Park, pp. 17-26.
Huffaker, C. B., Berryman, A. A., and Laing, J. E. 1984. In: Huffaker, C. B., Rabb, R. L. (Eds.) Natural control of insect populations. Ecological Entomology, Wiley, New York, pp. 359-398.
LeRu, B. P., and Mitsipa, A. 2002. Comparative life table statistics of Exochomus flaviventris reared on the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti, fed on four hostplants. Insect Science Application,22: 175-182.
Leslie, P. H. 1945. On the use of matrices in certain population mathematics. Biometry, 33: 183-212.
Letourneau, D. K. 1988. Conceptual framework of three trophic interactions. In: Barbosa, P., Letourneau, D. K. (Eds.). Novel aspects of insect-plant interactions. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, pp. 1-9.
Lewis, E. G. 1942. On the generation and growth of a population. Sankhya, 6: 93-96.Medeiros, R. S., Ramalho, F. S., Lemos, W. P., and Zanuncio, J. C. 2000. Age-dependent fecundity and fertility life tables for Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 124: 319-324.
Montazeri, M. H., 1994. Fauna of lady beetles (Coccinellidae) in Dashte Gorgan and Gonbad (North of Iran). Msc., thesis, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran.
Montllor, C. 1991. The influence of plant chemistry on aphid feeding behavior. In: Bernays, E. A. (Ed.) Insect–Plant Interactions, CRC, Boca Raton, FL, Vol. 3, pp. 125-173.
Naranjo, S. E. 2001. Conservation and evaluation of natural enemies in IPM systems for Bemisia tabaci. Crop Protection, 20: 835–852.
Norris, D. M., and Kogan, M. 1980. Biochemical and morphological bases of resistance. In: Maxwell, F. C., and Jennings, P. R. (Eds.) Breeding Plants Resistant to Insects, Wiley, New York, pp. 23-61.
Ohgushi, T. 2005. Indirect interaction webs: herbivore-induced effects through trait change in plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics,36: 81-105.
Price, P. W. 1997. Insect Ecology, 3rd edn. Wiley, NewYork.
Price, P. W., Bouton, C. E., Gross, P., McPheron, B. A., Thompson, J. N., and Weis, A. E. 1980. Interaction among three trophic levels: influence of plants on interaction between insect herbivores and natural enemies. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics,11: 4-65.
Rapisarda, C., Mifsud, D., and Martin, J. M. 1996. Current studies on the whitefly fauna of the Mediterranean Basin (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Proceeding of the XXI International Congress of Entomology, Firenze 25-31 08 Summary No. 22-91.
Rutledge, C. E., and O’Neil, R. J. 2005. Orius insidiosus (Say) as a predator of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumara. Biological Control, 33: 56-64.
Slansky, F., and Feeny, P. 1977. Stabilization of the rate of nitrogen accumulation by larvae of the cabbage butterfly on wild and cultivated food plants. Ecological Monographs,47: 209-228.
Songlin, Y., Zhen, H., Shunxiang, R., Mandour, N., and Shaukat, A. 2010. Effects of temperature on development, survival, longevity, and fecundity of Serangiumjaponicum (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a predator of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), Biocontrol Science and Technology, 21 (1): 23-34.
Soroushmehr, Z., Sahragard, A., and Salehi, L. 2008. Comparative life table statistics for the ladybeetle, Scymnus syriacus reared on the green citrus aphid, Aphis spiraecola, fed on two host plants, Entomological Science, 11: 281-288.
Southwood, T. R. E. 1981. Bionomics strategies and population parameters. In: May, R. M. (ed.) Theoretical Ecology: Principles and Applications, 2nd edn, Blackwell, Oxford, pp 30-52.
Southwood, S. R. 1986. Plant surface and insects–an overview. In: Juniper, B., Southwood, S. R. (Eds.), Insects and the plant surface. Edward Arnold, London, UK, pp. 1-22.
Southwood, T. R. E, and Henderson, P. A. 2000. Ecological Methods, 3rd edn. Blackwell, Oxford. A Literature Survey on the Cotton Whitefly with Annotated Bibliography. CAB. International Institute of Biological Control, UK.
Uygun, N., Ohnesorge, B., and Ulusoy, R. 1990. Two species of whiteflies on citrus in Eastern Mediterranean: Parabemisia myri-cae (Kuwana) and Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead). Morphology, biology, host plants and control in Southern Turkey. Journal of Applied Entomology, 110: 471-482.
Vatansever, G., Ulusoy., M. R., and Bakirciolu, P. L. 2003. Improving the mass rearing
possibilities of Serangium montazerii Fursch (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on different host plants of,Bemesia tabaci Genn (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Turkish Journal of Agriculture,27, 175-181.
Yasnosh, V. A., and Chaidze, T. A. 1986. Serangium against Citrus Whitefly in IntegratedPest Control of Citrus Groves. Leaflet, Moscow, pp. 212.
Yao, S., Huang, Zh., Ren, S., Mandour, N., and Shaukat, A. 2010. Effects of temperature on development, survival, longevity, and fecundity of Serangium japonicum (Col.,Coccinellidae), a predator of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hom., Aleyrodidae). Biocontrol Science and Technology, 21 (1): 23-34.
Yigit, A., Canhilal, R., and Ekmekci, U. 2003. Seasonal population fluctuations of Serangium montazerii (Col., Coccinellidae), a predator of citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri (Hom., Aleyrodidae) in Turkey’s Eastern Mediterranean Citrus Groves. Environmental Entomology, 32: 1105-1114.
Žaniĉ, K., Igrc Barčić, J., and Kačić, S. 2001. Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead, 1885) in the Adriatic Region of Croatia. Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, 66 (3): 161-168.