Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
Essential oil extracted from the leaves of Lemon verbena, Lippia citriodora Kunth(Verbenaceae) was tested for fumigant toxicity in the laboratory against two stored-product insects Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val and Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). The chemical composition of the isolated oil was examined by GC-MS. The major compounds were citral (11.3%), limonene (10.6%), neral (7.9%), 4-phenyl undecan-4-ol (7.7%), α-curcumene (6.5%), α-cedrol (4.5%) and caryophyllene oxide (4.5%). Furthermore, lesser amounts of the other components include carveol (3.7%), linalool (3.5%), α-pinene (3.2%), caryophyllene (2.8%) and geranyl acetat (1.8%) were existed in the essential oil. In the fumigant toxicity set at 27 ± 1 °C and 65 ± 5% R. H., darkness condition and 24 h exposure time, considerable differences in mortality of insect to essential oil vapor were observed. C. maculatus (LC50 = 10.2 µl/l air) was significantly more susceptible than T. confusum (LC50 = 497.8 µl/l air). These results suggested that essential oil of L. citriodora could be used as a potential control agent against stored-product insects.
Alavi, L., Barzegar, M., Jabbari, A. and Naghdi badi, H. 2011. The effect of heat treatment on chemical composition and antioxidant property of Lippia citriodora essential oil. Journal of Medicinal Plants, 10 (39): 65-75.
Amer, A. and Mehlhorn, H. 2006. Larvicidal effects of various essential oils against Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex larvae (Diptera, Culucidae). Parasitology Research, 99: 466-472.
Argyropoulou, C., Daferera, D., Tarantilis, P. A., Fasseas, C. and Polissiou, M. 2007. Chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves of Lippia citriodora at two developmental stages. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 35: 831-837.
Braga, M. E. M., Ehlert, P. A. D., Ming, L. C. and Meireles, M. A. A. 2005. Supercritical fluid extraction from Lippia alba: global yields, kinetic data, and extract chemical composition. Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 34: 149-156.
Cheng, S. S., Liu, J. Y., Huang, C. G., Hsui Chen, W. J. and Chang, S. T. 2009. Insecticidal activities of leaf essential oil from Cinnamomum osmophloeum against three mosquito species. Bioresource Technology, 100: 457-464.
Finney, D. J. 1971. Probit Analysis, 3rd Edition.CambridgeUniversityPress,London.
George, D. and Mallery, P. 2008. SPSS for Windows Step by Step: A Simple Guide and Reference, 16.0 Update (9th Edition). Allyn & Bacon,London.
Ghaemi, E., Khorshidi, D., Moradi, A., Seifi, A. Mazendrani, M. and Bazouri, M. 2006. The effect of ethanol extract of lemon verbena on the skin infection due to Staphylococcus aureus in an animal model. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 22 (3): 242-249. In Persian.
Isman, M. B. 2000. Plant essential oils for pest and disease management. Crop Protection, 19: 603-608.
Isman, M. B. 2006. Botanical insecticides, deterrents, and repellents in modern agriculture and an increasingly regulated world. Annual Review of Entomology,51: 45-66.
Jeon, J. H., Lee, C. H. and Lee, H. S. 2009. Food protective effect of geraniol and its congeners against stored food mites. Journal of Food Protection, 72 (7): 1468-1471.
Lee, S., Peterson, C. J. and Coats, J. R. 2003. Fumigation toxicity of monoterpenoids to several stored product insects. Journal of Stored Products Research, 39: 77-85.
Massebo, F., Tadesse, M., Bekele, T., Balkew, M. and Gebre-Michael, T. 2009. Evaluation on larvicidal effects of essential oils of some local plants against Anopheles arabiensis Patton and Aedes aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera, Culicidae) inEthiopia. African Journal of Biotechnology, 8 (17): 4183-4188.
Meshkatalsadat, M. H., Papzan, A. H. and Abdollahi, A. 2010. Determination of bioactive volatile organic components of Lippia citriodora using ultrasonic assisted with headspace solid phase microextraction coupled with GC-MS. Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures, 6 (1): 319-323.
Negahban, M., Moharramipour, S. and Sefidkon, F. 2007. Fumigant toxicity of essential oil from Artemisia sieberi Besser against three stored product insects. Journal of Stored Products Research, 43: 123-128.
Ocazionez, R., Meneses, R., Torres, F. and Stashenko, E. 2010. Virucidal activity of Colombian Lippia essential oils on dengue virus replication in vitro. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 105: 304-309.
Olivero-Verbel, J., Guette-Fernandez, J. and Stashenko, H. 2009. Acute toxicity against Artemia franciscana of essential oils isolated from plants of the genus Lippia and Piper collected in Colombia. Bol. Latinoam Caribe. Plant Med Aromát, 8 (5): 419-427.
Pascual, M. E., Slowing, K., Carretero, E., Sa´nchez, M. D. and Villar, A. 2001. Lippia: traditional uses, chemistry and pharmacology: a review. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 76: 201-214.
Rajendran, S. and Sriranjini, V. 2008. Plant products as fumigant for stored-product insect control. Journal of Stored Products Research, 44: 126-135.
Rees, D. P. 1995. Coleoptera, In: Subramanyam, Bh. and Hagstrum, D. W. (Eds.), Integrated management of insects in stored products. MarcelDekker,New York, pp. 3-11.
Shaaya, E., Kostyukovsky, M., Eilberg, J. and Sukprakarn, C. 1997. Plant oils as fumigants and contact insecticides for the control of stored-product insect. Journal of Stored Products Research, 33: 7-15.
Tanzubil, P. B. 1991. Control of some insect pests of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) with neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) inNorthern Ghana. TropicalPest Management, 37: 216-217.
Tatsadjieu, N. L., Jazet Dongmo, P. M. Ngassoum, M. B. Etoa, F. X. and Mbofung, C. M. F. 2009. Investigations on the essential oil of Lippia rugosa from Cameroon for its potential use as antifungal agent against Aspergillus flavus Link ex. Fries. Food Control, 20: 161-166
Terblanche´, F. C. and Kornelius, G. 1996. Essential oil constituents of the genus Lippia (Verbenaceae)- a literature review. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 8: 471-485.
Tripathi, A. K., Prajapati, V., Khanuja, S. P. and Kumar, S. 2003. Effect of d-limonene on three stored-product beetles. Journal of Economic Entomology, 96 (3): 990-995.
Zoubiri, S. and Baaliouamer, A. 2011. Chemical composition and insecticidal properties of some aromatic herbs essential oils fromAlgeria. Food Chemistry, 129 (1): 179-182.