1Seed and Plant Certification and Registration Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran.
2Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran.
3Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
One of the best strategies to control bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) is generally based on breeding resistant cultivars. The information obtained from the expression of plant defense genes will provide new insight for improving plant resistance against pathogens. This study was to identify inducible genes under defense no death (DND) reaction of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)-R. solanacearum interaction using cDNA-AFLP technique. In this assay five different primer combinations were used. Out of 1320 Transcript derived fragments (TDF) that were detected, 101 fragments were identified as differentially expressed genes in 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours post inoculation. Most of the differentially expressed genes were obtained 48 hours post inoculation. Following sequencing, most of sequenced TDFs showed homology to known genes interfering in signaling, regulation and defense functions. DND phenotype in tobacco has some similarities specially in signaling process with mechanism associated with induction of the hypersensitive reaction and it is distinct from general defense mechanisms.
Bachem, C. W. B., Oomen, R. J. F. and Visser, R. 1998. Transcript imaging with cDNA-AFLP: A step by step protocol. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter, 16: 157-173.
Bassam, B. J., Caetano-Anolle´s, G. and Gresshoff, P. M. 1991. Fast and sensitive silver staining of DNA in polyacrylamide gels. Analytical Biochemistry, 196: 80-83.
Baulcombe, D. C. 1999. Fast forward genetics based on virus-induced gene silencing. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 2: 109-113.
Bohlmann, J., Meyer-Gauen, G. and Croteau, R. 1998. Plant terpenoid synthases: Molecular biology and phylogenetic analysis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, 5: 4126-4133.
Buddenhagen, I. and Kelman, A. 1964. Biological and physiological aspects of bacterial wilt caused by Pesudomonas solanacearum. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 2: 203-230.
Carney, B. F. and Denny, T. P. 1990. Acloned avirulence gene from Pseudomonas solanacearum determinesincompatibility on Nicotianatabacum at the host species level. Journal of Bacteriology, 172: 4836-4843.
Carputo, D. and Barone, A. 2005. Ploidy level manipulations in potato through sexual hybridization. Annals of Applied Biology, 146 (1): 71-79.
Carputo, D., Aversano, R., Barone, A., Di Matteo, A., Iorizzo, M. and Sigillo, L. 2009. Resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum of sexual hybrids between Solanumcommersonii and S. tuberosum. American Journal ofPotato Research, 86: 196-202.
Dahal, D., Heinz, D., Dorsselaer, A. V., Braun, H. P. and Wydra, K. 2009. Pathogenesis and stress related, as well as metabolic proteins are regulated in tomato stems infected with Ralstonia solanacearum. Plant Physiology Biochemistry. 47: 838-846.
Daurelio, L., Tondo, M. L., Dunger, G., Gottig, N., Ottado, J. and Orellano, E. G. 2009a. Hypersensitive response, In: Narwal S. S., Catalan, A. N., Sampietro, D. A., Vattuone, M. A. and Polyticka, B. (Eds.), Book on Plant Bioassay, Houston, Studium press, pp. 187-206.
Daurelio, L. D., Checa, K., Barrio, J. M., Ottado, J. and Orellano, E. G. 2009b. Characterization of Citrus sinensis type 1 mitochondrial alternative oxidase and expression analysis in biotic stress. Bioscience Reports, 30:59-71.
de Pinto, M.C., Paradiso, A., Leonetti, P. and De Gara, L. 2006. Hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase at the crossroad between defence and cell death. Plant Journal, 48: 784-795.
Dorothea, T., F. Chen, J. Petri, J. Gershenzon, and Pichersky, E. 2005. Two sesquiterpene synthases are responsible for the complex mixture of sesquiterpenes emitted from Arabidopsis flowers. Plant Journal. 42: 757-771.
Esposito, N., Ovchinnikova, O. G., Barone, A., Zoina, A., Holst, O, and Evidente, A. 2008. Host and non-host plant response to Bacterial wilt in potato: role of the lipopolysaccharide isolated from Ralstonia solanacearum and molecular analysis of plant pathogen interaction. Chemistry and Biodiversity, 5: 2662-2675.
Facchini, P. J. and Chappell, J. 1992. Gene family for an elicitor-induced sesquiterpene cyclase in tobacco. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, 89: 11088-11092.
Gao, G., Jin, L. P., Xie, K. Y. and Qu, D. Y. 2009. The potato StLTPa7 gene displays a complex Ca2+-associated pattern of expression during the early stage of potato–Ralstoniasolanacearum interaction. Molecular Plant Pathology. 10: 15-27.
Godiard, L., Ragueh, F., Froissard, D., Leguay, J. J., Grosset, J., Chartier, Y., Meyer, Y., and Marcp, Y. 1990. Analysis of the synthesis of several pathogenesis-related proteins in tobacco leaves infiltrated with water and with compatible and incompatible isolates of Pseudomonas solanacearum. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 3: 207-213.
Hayward, A. C. 1991. Biology and epidemiology of bacterial wilt caused by Pseudomonas solanacearum. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 29: 65-87.
Ishihara, T., Mitsuhara, I., Takahashi, H. and Nakaho, K. 2012. Transcriptome Analysis of Quantitative Resistance-Specific Response upon Ralstonia solanacearum infection in Tomato. PLoS One, 7: e46763.
Jakobek, J. L. and Lindgren, P. B. 1993. Generalised induction of defence responses in bean is not correlated with the induction of the hypersensitive reaction. The Plant Cell,5: 49-56.
Jaspers, P., Brosché, M., Overmyer, K. and Kangasjrvi, J. 2010. The transcription factor interacting protein RCD1 contains a novel conserved domain. Plant Signaling and Behavior, 5: 78-80.
Jenks, M. A., Joly, R. J., Peters, P. J., Rich, P. J., Axtell, J. D. and Ashworth, E. N. 1994. Chemically induced cuticle mutation affecting epidermal conductance to water vapor and disease susceptibility in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. Plant Physiology, 105: 1239-1245.
Kamoun, S. 2001. Nonhost resistance to Phytophthora: novel prospects for a classical problem. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 4: 295-300.
Kessler, A. and Baldwin, I. T. 2001. Defensive function of herbivore-induced plant volatile emissions in nature. Science, 291: 2141-2144.
Kiba, A., Maimbo, M., Kanda, A., Tomiyama, H., Ohnishi, K. and Hikichi, Y. 2007. Isolation and expression analysis of candidate genes related to Ralstonia solanacearum-tobacco interaction. Plant Biotechnology, 24: 409-416.
Klement, Z. 1982. Hypersensitivity, In: Mount, M. S. and Lacy, G. H. (Eds.), Phytopathogenic prokaryotes. Academic Press, New York, pp. 149-177.
Klement, Z., Bozsó, Z., Kecskés, M. L., Besenyei, E., Czelleng, A., Ott, P. G. (2003): Local early induced resistance of plants as the first line of defence against bacteria. Pest Management Science, 59: 465-474.
Lozano, J. C., and Sequeira, L. 1970. Prevention of the hypersensitive reaction in tobacco leaves by heat killed bacterial cells. Phytopathology, 60: 875-879.
Mittler, R., Freng, X. and Cohen, M. 1998. Post-Transcriptional Suppression of Cytosolic Ascorbate Peroxidase Expression during Pathogen-Induced Programmed Cell Death in Tobacco. The Plant Cell, 10: 461-473.
Mittler, R., Vanderauwera, S., Gollery, M. and Van Breusegem, F. 2004. Reactive oxygen gene network of plants. Trends in Plant Science, 9: 490-498.
Narusaka, M., Kubo, Y., Hatakeyama, K., Imamura, J., Ezura, H. and Nanasato, Y. 2013. Interfamily transfer of dual NB-LRR genes confers resistance to multiple pathogens. PLoS ONE, 8:e55954.
Nouri, S., Bahar, M. and Fegan, M. 2009. Diversity of Ralstonia solanacearum strain causing bacterial wilt of potato in Iran. Plant Pathology, 58: 243-249.
OEPP/ EPPO. 1990. EPPO Standards PM 3/ 26. Ralstonia solanacearum, inspection and test methods. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 20: 255-262.
OEPP/EPPO. 2004. Diagnostics protocols for regulated pests. Ralstonia solanacearum. Bulletin of the OEPP/EPPO, 34: 173-179.
Overmyer, K., Tuominen, H., Kettunen, R., Betz, C., Langebartels, C., Sandermann, H. and Kangasjärvi, J. 2000a. Ozone-sensitive Arabidopsis rcd1 mutant reveals opposite roles for ethylene and jasmonate signaling pathways in regulating superoxide-dependent cell death. Plant Cell, 12: 1849-1862.
Overmyer, K., Tuominen, H., Kettunen, R., Betz, C., Langebartels, C., Sandermann, H. and Kangasjärvi. J. 2000b. Ozone-sensitive Arabidopsis rcd1 mutant reveals opposite roles for ethylene and jasmonate signaling pathways in regulating superoxide-dependent cell death. Plant Cell, 12: 1849-1862.
Qin, Y. M., Hu, C. Y. and Zhu, Y. X. 2008. The ascorbate peroxidase regulated by H2O2 and ethylene is involved in cotton fiber cell elongation by modulating ROS homeostasis. Plant Signaling and Behavior, 3: 19-196.
Riederer, M. 2006. Biology of the plant cuticle, In: Riederer, M. and Muller, C. (Eds.), Biology of the Plant Cuticle. Oxford, UK, Blackwell publishers, pp. 1-8.
Rowland, O., Ludwig, A. A., Merrick, C. J., Baillieul, F., Tracy, F. E., Durrant, W. E., Fritz-Laylin, L., Nekrasov, V., Sjolander, K. and Yoshioka, H. 2005. Functional analysis of Avr9/Cf-9 rapidly elicited genes identifies a protein kinase, ACIK1, that is essential for full Cf-9-dependent disease resistance in tomato. Plant Cell, 17: 295-310.
Sarowar, S., Kim, Y. J., Kim, E. N., Kim, K. D., Hwang, B. K., Islam, R. and Shin, J. S. 2005. Overexpression of a pepper basic pathogenesis-related protein 1 gene in tobacco plants enhances resistance to heavy metal and pathogen stresses. Plant Cell Reports,24: 216-224.
Schacht, T., Unger, C., Pich, A. and Wydra, K. 2011. Endo and exopolygalacturonases of Ralstonia solanacearum are inhibited by polygalacturonase inhibiting protein activity in tomato stem extracts. Plant Physiology and biochemistry, 49: 377-387.
Thordal-Christensen, H. 2003. Fresh insights into processes of non-host resistance. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 6: 351-357.
Vasse, J., Frey, P. and Trigalet, A. 1995. Microscopic studies of intercellular infection and protoxylem invasion of tomato roots by Pseudomonas solanacearum. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 8: 241-251.