Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.
In this study, anti Alternaria solani effects of essential oils of 11 medicinal and aromatic plant species belonging to four families collected from the west of Iran were investigated based on agar dilution method with five replications at concentration of 1.0 µl/ml. The results showed that the highest inhibitory effect belonged to Oliveria decumbens, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Carum copticum and Thymus kotschyanus which completely inhibited the mycelial growth of the fungus. Therefore, their activity was examined in lower concentrations, too. The essential oil of O. decumbens at concentration of 0.50 and 0.25 µl/ml completely suppressed the mycelial growth of the fungus. The major constituents of its essential oil were carvacrol (46.53%), thymol (23.75%), p-Cymene (13.70%), γ-terpinene (7.66%) and myristicin (3.65%), respectively. Thus, the essential oil of this species with the highest anti-Alternaria activity could be selected for further studies on in vivo application as natural fungicide.
Adams, R. P. 2001. Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/ quadrupole mass spectroscopy. Allured Publishing Corporation, Carol Stream, IL, USA. pp, 63-344.
Ahmady Abchin, S., Nasrolahi Omran, A., Jafari, N., Mostafapour, M. J. and Kia, S. M. 2012. Antibacterial effects of Lavandula Stoechas essential oil, on gram positive and negativebacteria in vitro. Medical Laboratory Journal, 6 (2): 34-41.
Amin, G., Salehi Sourmaghi, M. H., Zahedi, M., Khanavi, M. and Samadi, N. 2005. Essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of Oliveria decumbens. Fitoterapia, 76 (7-8): 704-707.
Babagoli, M. A. and Behdad, E. 2012. Effects of three essential oils on the growth of the fungus Alternaria solani. Journal of Research in Agricultural Science, 8 (1): 45-57.
Bahraminejad, S., Amiri, R. and Abbasi, S. 2015.Anti-fungal properties of 43 plant species against Alternaria solani and Botrytis cinerea. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 48: 336-344.
Bahraminejad, S., Asenstorfer, R. E., Williams, K. J., Hayasaka, Y., Zwer, P. K., Riley, I. T. and Schultz, C. J. 2008. Metabolites correlated with cereal cyst nematode resistance in oats (Avena sativa) identified using single seed descent lines. Nematologia Mediterranea, 36: 145-152.
Bajpai, V. K., Kang, S. C. 2010. Antifungal activity of leaf essential oil and extracts of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Miki ex Hu. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 87: 327-336.
Ballba, S. I., Hilal, S. H. and Haggag, M. Y. 1973. The volatile oil from the herb and fruits of Carum copticum at different stages of growth. Planta Medica, 23: 312-320.
Behdad, M., Etemadi, N. A., Behdad, E. and Zeinali, H. 2013. Antifungal effects of three plant essential oils against Rhizopus stolonifer, the cause of soft rot on strawberry fruit. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 29: 399-411.
Behravan, J., Ramezani, M., Hassanzadeh, M.K. and Ebadi, S. 2007. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of the essential oils of Zataria multiflora, Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris by a thin layer chromatography-bioautography method. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 10: 259-264.
Chitwood, D. J. 2002. Phytochemical based strategies for nematode control. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 40: 221-249.
Chobba, I. B., Bekir, A., Mansour, R. B., Drira, N., Gharsallah, N. and Kadri, A. 2012. In vitro evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) essential oil cultivated from South-West Tunisia. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 2 (11): 034-039.
Cimanga, K., Kambu, K., Tona, L., Apers, S., De Bruyne, T. and Hermans, N. 2002. Correlation between chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils of some aromatic medicinal plants growing in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 79: 213-220.
Dehghan, Gh., Solaimanian, R., Shahverdi, A., Amin, Gh., Abdollahi, M. and Shafiee, A. 2007. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Ferula szovitsiana D.C. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 22: 224-227.
Djordjevic, M., Djordjevic, O., Djordjevic, R., Mijatovic, M., Kostic, M., Todorovic, G. and Ivanovic, M. 2013. Alternative approach in control of tomato pathogen by using essential oils in vitro. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 45(3): 1069-1072.
Goussous, S. J., Abu el-Samen, F. M. and Tahhan, R. A. 2010. Antifungal activity of several medicinal plants extracts against the early blight pathogen (Alternaria solani). Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 43: 1745-1757.
Habibi, H., Mazaheri, D., Majnoon Hosseini, N., Chaeechi, M. R., Fakhr-Tabatabaee, M. and Bigdeli, M. 2007. Effect of altitude on essential oil and components in wild thyme (Thymus kotschyanus Boiss)Taleghan region. Pajouhesh & Sazandegi, 73: 2-10.
Hajimehdipoor, H., Samadi, N., Mozaffarian, V., Rahimifard, N., Shoeibi, Sh. and Pirali Hamedani, M. 2010. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Oliveria decumbens volatile oil from West of Iran. Journal of Medicinal Plants, 9 (6): 39-44.
Jobling, J. 2000. Essential oils: A new idea for postharvest disease control. Good Fruit and Vegetables Magazine, 11 (3): 50-54.
Kohanmoo, M. A. and Jamali, F. 2013. Antifungal activities of some medicinal plant essential oils against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Lycopersici. Biological Control of Pests and Plant Diseases, 2: 27-33.
Kotan, R., Kordali, S., Cakir, A., Kesdek, M., Kaya, Y. and Kilic, H. 2008. Antimicrobial and insecticidal activities of essential oil isolated from Turkish Salvia hydrangea DC. ex. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 36: 360-368.
Mahboubi, M., Feizabadi, M. M., Haghi, G. and Hosseini, H. 2008. Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of essential oil from Oliveria decumbens Vent. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 24: 56-65.
Mahmoud, A. L. 1994. Antifungal action and antiaflatoxigenic properties of some essential oil constituents. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 2: 110-113.
Mann, S. R. and Kaufman, E. P. 2012. Natural product pesticides: their development, delivery and use against insect vectors. Mini-Review in Organic Chemistry, 9: 185-202.
Mate, G. D., Deshmukh, V. V., Jiotode, D. J., Chore, N. S. and Dikkar, M. 2005. Efficacy of plant products and fungicides on tomato early blight caused by Alternaria solani. Research on Crops, 6: 349-351.
Moghaddam, M., Pourbaige, M., Kourosh Tabar, H., Farhadi, N. and Ahmadi Hosseini, S. M. 2013. Composition and antifungal activity of peppermint(Mentha piperita)essential oil from Iran. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 16: 506-512.
Najafpour Navaei, M. and Mirza, M. 2003. Essential oil ofOliveria decumbens Vent. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 15: 23-31.
Noroozi, J., Akhani, H. and Breckle, S-W. 2008. Biodiversity and phytogeography of the alpine flora of Iran. Biodiversity and Conservation, 17: 493-521.
Ojagh, S. M., Rezaei, M., Razavi, S. H. and Hosseini, S. M. H. 2012. Investigation of antibacterial activity cinnamon bark essential oil(Cinnamomum zeylanicum) in vitro antibacterial activity against five food spoilage bacteria. Iranian journal of Food Science and Technology, 35 (9): 67-76.
Pandey, R., Kalra, A., Tandon, S., Mehrotra, N., Singh, H. N. and Kumar, S. 2000. Essential oils as potent sources of nematicidal compounds. Journal of Phytopathology, 148: 501-502.
Ramesh, S. Y., Sandeep, K. and Anupam, D. 2006. Antifungal properties of essential oil Mentha spicata L. var.MSS-5. Indian Journal of Crop Science, 1: 197-200.
Rezaei Kahkha, M. R., Amanloo, S. and Kaykhaiim, M. 2014. Antiaflatoxigenic activity of Carum copticum essential oil. Environmental Chemistry Letters, 12: 231-234.
Sajadi, S. E. and Hosseini, S. A. 2002. Essential oil constituents ofOliveria decumbensVent. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 14: 220-221.
Sandra, P. and Bicchi, C. 1987. Capillary Gas Chromatography in Essential Oil Analysis. Alfred Huethig-Verlag: Heidelberg, pp: 259-274.
Savary, S., Teng, P. S., Willocquet, L. and Nutter, F. W. 2006. Quantification and modeling of crop losses: a review of purposes. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 44: 89-112.
Shahbazi, H., Aminian, H., Sahebani, N. and Lak, M. R. 2011. Evaluation of resistance of potato cultivars to isolates of Alternaria solani the causal agent of early blight and study of totalphenol contents in resistance and susceptible cultivars. Seed and Plant Improvement Journal, 27-1: 1-14.
Sridhar, S. R., Rajagopal, R. V., Rajavel, R., Masilamani, S. and Narasimhan, S. 2003. Antifungal activity of some essential oils. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51: 7596-7599.
Tabassum, N. and Vidyasagar, G. M. 2013. Antifungal investigations on plant essential oils: a review. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 5 (2): 19-28.
Tajkarim, M. M., Ibrahim, S. A. and Cliver, D. O. 2010. Antimicrobial herb and spice compounds in food. Food Control, 21: 1199-1218.
Trajano, V. N., Lima, E. O. and De Souza, F. S. 2012. Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume andeugenol on Aspergillus flavus. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 15 (5): 785-793.
Tripathi, P., Dubey, N. K. and Shukla, A. K. 2008. Use of some essential oils as post-harvest botanical fungicides in the management of grey mould of grapes caused by Botrytis cinerea. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 24: 39-46.
Viuda-Martos, M., Ruiz-Navajas, Y., Fernández-López, J. and PérezÁlvarez, J. A. 2007. Antifungal activities of thyme, clove and oregano essential oils. Journal of Food Safety, 27: 91-101.
Xing-dong, L. and Hua-li, X. 2014. Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Zanthoxylum bungeanum and its major constituent on Fusarium sulphureum and dry rot of potato tubers. Phytoparasitica, 42: 509-517.
Yaghout Nejad, F., Radjabi, R. and Palvaneh, N. 2013. A review on evaluation of plant essential oils against pests in Iran. Persian Gulf Crop Protection, 2 (4): 74-97.
Yazici, S., Yanar, Y. and Karaman, I. 2011. Evaluation of bacteria for biological control of early blight disease of tomato. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10: 1573-1577.