1Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Sciences and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
2National Plant Gene-Bank, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Karaj, Iran.
Mosaic is presumably the most commonly encountered viral disease in roses. We have developed chemo-thermotherapy for eliminating Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV) and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) from rose plants. Chemotherapy and thermotherapy methods were also applied separately and their antiviral effect compared with the chemo-thermotherapy. In this procedure, infected explants were regenerated on MS medium containing ribavirin at concentrations of 10, 20 and 30 mg/l for 20 and 40 days, followed by a thermotherapy treatment for 30 days at 38 °C for 16 hours and 22 °C for 8 hours per day. The complex of rose viruses (ArMV and PNRSV) were effectively eradicated from regenerated rose plantlets as verified by double- antibody sandwich enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Thermotherapy alongside with chemotherapy (containing 30 mg/l per one month) during the period of four weeks was the best treatment for plantlet regeneration and virus elimination. The virus elimination efficiency from ArMV, PNRSV and ArMV + PNRSV infected plants were determined as 63.33%, 90.09% and 85.18%, respectively. A detailed procedure for elimination of mixed viruses is described.
Bittner, H., Schenk, G. and Schuster, G. 1987. Chemotherapeutical elimination of potato virus x from potato cuttings. Journal of Phytopathology, 120: 90-92.
Cassells, A. C. and Long, R. D. 1982. The elimination of potato viruses X, Y, S and M in meristem and explants cultures of potato in the presence of virazole. Potato Research, 25: 165-173.
Cieslinska, M. 2007. Application of thermo-and chemotherapy in vitro for eliminating some viruses infecting Prunus sp. fruit trees. Journal of Fruit Ornamental Plant Research, 15: 117-124.
Clark, M. F. and Adams, A. N. 1977. Characteristics of the microplate method enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of plant viruses. Journal of General Virology, 34: 457-483.
Converse, R. H. and Bartlett, A. B. 1979. Occurrence of viruses in some wild Rubus and Rosa species in Oregon. Plant Disease Reporter, 63: 441-444.
Danci, O., Erdei, L., Danci, M., Baciu, A., David, I. and Berbentea, F. 2009. Influence of ribavirin on potato plants regeneration and virus eradication. Journal of Horticulture, Forestry and Biotechnology, 13: 421-425.
Deogratias, J. M., Dosba, F. and Lutz, A. 1989. Eradication of prune dwarf virus, prune necrotic ringspot virus, and apple chlorotic leaf spot virus in sweet cherries by a combination of chemotherapy, thermotherapy, and in vitro culture. Plant Pathology, 11: 337-342.
Dhital, S. P., Lim, H. T. and Sharma, B. P. 2008. Electrotherapy and chemotherapy for eliminating double-infected potato virus (PLRV, PVY) from invitro plantlets of potato (Solanum tuberosum). Horticulture Environment and Biotechnology, 49: 52-57.
Elia, G., Belloli, C. and Cirone, F. 2008. In vitro efficacy of ribavirin against canine distemper virus. Antiviral Research, 77 (2): 108-113.
Faccioli, G. 2001. Control of potato viruses using meristem and stem-cutting cultures, thermotherapy and chemotherapy, In: Loebenstein, G., Berger, P. H. Brunt, A. A. and Lawson, R. H. (Eds.) Virus and Virus-like Disease of Potatoes and Production of Seed-Potatoes, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 365-390.
Falah, M., Mozafari, J., Sokhandan Bashir, N. and Hashemi, M. 2009. Elimination of a DNA virus associated with yellow leaf curl disease in tomato using an electrotherapy technique. Proc. IInd Intl. Symposium on Tomato Diseases, 157-161 pp.
Flament, I., Debonneville, C. and Furrer, A. 1993. Volatile constituents of roses, In: Teranishi, R., Buttery, R. G. and Sugisawa, H., (Eds.), Bioactive compound from plants. American Chemical Society, Washington D.C., pp. 269-281.
Fulton, R. W. 1970. Prunus necrotic ringspot virus. CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses No. 5. Commonwealth Mycology Institute./Association Applied Bioliogist, Kew, Surry, England.
Gella, R. and Errea, P. 1998. Application of in vitro therapy for Ilarvirus elimination in trees Prunus species. Journal of Phytopathology, 146: 445-449.
Golino, D. A, Sim, S. T., Lee, J. and Rowhani, A. 2007. Elimination of rose mosaic viruses using microshoot tip tissue culture. Acta Horticulturae, 751: 237-240.
Gomez, K. A. and Gomez, A. A. 1984. Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research, 2nd ed. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 680 pp.
Griffiths, H. M., Slack, S. A. and Dodds, J. H. 1990. Effect of chemical and heat therapy on virus concentration in invitro plantlets. Canadian Journal of Botany, 68: 1515-1521.
Gută, I. C., Baciumeanu, E-C, Gheorghe, R. N. and Teodorescu, A. 2010.Solutions to eliminate grapevine leafroll associated virus serotype 1 + 3 from V. vinifera L. cv. Ranâi Magaraci.Romanian Biotechnological Letters, 15 (1): 72-78.
Hansen, A. J. 1984. Effect of ribavirin on green ring mottle causal agent and necrotic ringspot virus in Prunus species. Plant Disease, 68: 216-218.
Hill, S. A. and Jackson, E. A. 1984. An investigation of the reliability of ELISA as a practical test for detecting Potato leaf roll virus and Potato virus Y in tubers. Plant Pathology, 33: 21-26.
Horst, K. R. 2007. Compendium of Rose Diseases. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. 83 pp.
Howell, W. E., Eastwell, K. C. and Li, T. S. C. 2001. Heat treatment, chemo therapy and hydroponic culture for obtaining virus-free trees of sweet cherry. Acta Horticulturae, 550: 455-457.
Johnston, G. R., Munro, D., Brown, G. and skotland, C. B. 1995. Serological detection, occurrence spread of Ilarviruses in temperate fruit crops, hops and roses in Tasmania. Acta Horticulturae, 386: 132-135.
Klein, R. E. and Livingstone, C. H. 1983. Eradication of Potato viruses X and S from potato shoot-tip cultures with ribavirin. Phytopathology, 73: 1049-1050.
Knapp, E., Hanzer, V., Weiss H., Da Camara Machado, A., Wang, Q., Weiss, B., Katinger, H. and Laimer da Camara Machado, M. 1995. Distribution of apple chlorotic leaf spot virus in apple shoots cultivated in vitro. Acta Horticulturae, 386: 187-194.
Learch, B. 1987. On the inhibition of plant virus multiplication by ribavirin. Antiviral Research, 7: 257-270.
Loebenstein, G. 2001. Potato leafroll virus (PLRV; Genus Polerovirus ; Family Luteoviridae). In: Loebenstein, G., Berger, P. H. Brunt, A. A. and Lawson, R. H. (Eds.), Virus and Virus-like Diseases of Potatoes and Production of Seed-Potatoes, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 69-75.
Lozoya, H., Abello, F. and Gracia, G. 1996. Electrotherapy and shoot tip culture eliminate PVX in potatoes. American Journal of Potato Research, 73: 149-154.
Mahmoud, S. Y. M., Hosseni, M. H. and Abdel-Ghaffar, M. H. 2009. Evaluation of some therapies to eliminate potato Y potyvirus from potato plants. International Journal of Virology, 5: 64-76.
Matthews, S., Stuchbury, T. and Thomson, W. J. 1992. The application of micropropagation to seed potato production in Northern Scotland, Research Investigation and Field Trials, 1992-1993, 192-196, School of Agriculture, Aberdeen.
Meier, V., Bürger, E., Mihm, S., Saile, B. and Ramadori, G. 2003. Ribavirin inhibits DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis in PHA-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: possible explanation for therapeutic efficacy in patients with chronic HCV infection. Journal of Medical Virology, 69 (1): 50-58.
Ministry of Agriculture Jihad. 2012. Annual report, Office of Flowers and Ornamental Plants, Horticulture Department of the Ministry of Agriculture Jihad.
Moury, B. Cardin, L., Onesto, J. P., Candresse, T. and Poupet, A. 2001. Survey of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus in rose and its variability in rose and Prunus spp. Phytopathology, 91: 84-91.
Murashige, T., and Skoog, F. 1962. A revised medium for rapid growth and bio-assays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiologia Plantarum, 15: 473-497.
Ortega-Prieto, A. M., Sheldon, J., Grande-Pérez, A., Tejero, H., Gregori, J., Quer, J., Esteban, J. I., Domingo, E. and Perales, C. 2013. Extinction of hepatitis C virus by ribavirin in hepatoma cells involves lethal mutagenesis. PLoS One, 8 (8):e71039. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071039
Pazhouhandeh, M. 2002. Development of virus-free germplasm in potato. Ms.C. Dissertation, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran.
Previati, A., Benelli, C., Da Re, F., Ozudogru, A. and Lambardi, M. 2008. Micropropagation and in vitro conservation of virus-free rose germplasm. Propagation of Ornamental Plants, 8: 93-98.
Rakhshandehroo, F., Modarresi, A. and Zamani Zadeh, H. R. 2009. Study on the antiviral effect of aquatic and alcoholic extracts of Urtica dioica L. on rose mosaic viral disease in vitro culture. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 25 (3): 403-413.
Salazar, L. F. 1996. Potato viruses and their control. International Potato Center, Lima, Peru.
Verma, N., Ram, R. and Zaidi, A. A. 2005. Invitro production of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus-free begonias through chemo- and thermotherapy. Scientia Horticulturae, 103: 239-247.
Wambugu, F. M. 1985. Eradication of potato virus Y and S from potato by chemotherapy of cultured axillary bud tips. American Potato Journal, 62: 667-672.
Weiss, E. A. 1997. Essential oil crops. In: Rosaceae, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, UK.