1Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
2Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Urmia, Urmia, Iran.
3Seed and Plant Certification and Registration Institute, Karaj, Iran.
Fusarium proliferatum, as a toxigenic fungus, is one of the important agents of onion basal rot (FBR). Among the control methods of the disease, biological control is considered as one of the best options. In this study, Trichoderma harzianum strain T100 at the rate of 1 × 106 cfu/g was mixed with pot soil artificially infested with F. proliferatum. Also Glomus mosseae was applied to each pot at the rate of three grams of soil containing 80 chlamydospores/ml. Combination of T100 and G. mosseae was used as well. Onion seeds were disinfected & planted in pots, arranged in completely randomized design in 4 replicates under greenhouse condition and finally, the individual or combined effects of these bioagents were assessed on FBR control and also root colonization by Glomus 23, 30 and 36 days after sowing. Inoculation of Arbuscular mycorrhizae improved onion growth effectively, but its biocontrol effect was not considerable. Trichoderma amended soil decreased disease incidence by 25% but its usefulness as biocontrol agent was reduced in the course of time. AM root colonization was decreased in plants in presence of Trichoderma. Nevertheless, the disease control in combination of Trichoderma and Glomus treatment was better than the treatments by each one of the agents singly. The disease control achieved by fungicide seed treatment was inferior to that of Trichoderma and Glomus in combination.
Altintas, S. and Bal, U. 2008. Effects of the commercial product based on Trichoderma harzianum on plant, bulb and yield characteristics of onion. Scientia Horticulturae, 116: 219-222.
Arriola, L. L., Hausbeck, M. K., Rogers, J. and Safir, G. R. 2000. The effect of Trichoderma harzianum and arbuscular mycorrhizae on Fusarium root rot in asparagus. HortTechnology, 10: 141-144.
Bayraktar, H. and Dolar, F.S. 2011. Molecular identification and genetic diversity of Fusarium species associated with onion fields in Turkey. Journal of Phytopathology, 159: 28-34.
Biswas, K. and Das, N. 1999. Biological control of pigeon pea wilt caused by Fusarium udum with Trichoderma spp. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 7: 46-50.
Brown, M., Gregon, E., Gapasin, R., Miller, S. and De Castro, A. 2008. Management of soil-borne diseases of onions in rice-vegetable system using specific biological control agents (vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae, VAM). Plant Diseases, 74: 3-27.
Calvet, C., Barea, J. M. and Pera, J. 1992. In vitro interactions between the vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae and some saprophytic fungi isolated from organic substrates. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 24: 775-780.
Coşkuntuna, A. and Özer, N. 2008. Biological control of onion basal rot disease using Trichoderma harzianum and induction of antifungal compounds in onion set following seed treatment. Crop Protection, 27: 330-336.
Cramer, C. S. 2000. Breeding and genetics of Fusarium basal rot resistance in onion. Euphytica, 115: 159-166.Datnoff, L., Nemec, S. and Pernezny, K. 1995. Biological control of Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato in Florida using Trichoderma harzianum and Glomus intraradices. Biological Control, 5: 427-431.
Fracchia, S., Sampedro, I., Scervino, J. M., Garcia-Romera, I., Ocampo, J. A. and Godeas, A. 2004. Influence of saprobe fungi and their exudates on arbuscula rmycorrhizal symbioses. Symbiosis, 36: 162-182.
Gerdemann, J. and Nicolson, T. H. 1963. Spores of mycorrhizal Endogone species extracted from soil by wet sieving and decanting. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 46: 235-244.
Ghanbarzadeh, B., Mohammadi Goltapeh, E. and Safaie, N. 2013. Identification of Fusarium species causing basal rot of onion in East Azarbaijan province, Iran and evaluation of their virulence on onion bulbs and seedlings. Archives of Phytopatholy and plant protecion, 47: 1050-1062.
Gill, T. S., Singh, R. S. and Kaur, J. 2002. Comparison of four arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for root colonization, spore population and plant growth response in chickpea. Indian Phytopathology, 55: 210-213.
Hodge, A., Stewart, J., Robinson, D., Griffiths, B. and Fitter, A. 2000. Competition between roots and soil micro-organisms for nutrients from nitrogen-rich patches of varying complexity. Journal of Ecology, 88: 150-164.
Howell, C. 2003. Mechanisms employed by Trichoderma species in the biological control of plant diseases: the history and evolution of current concepts. Plant Disease: 87: 4-10.
John, R. P., Tyagi, R., Prévost, D., Brar, S. K., Pouleur, S. and Surampalli, R. 2010. Mycoparasitic Trichoderma viride as a biocontrol agent against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. adzuki and Pythium arrhenomanes and as a growth promoter of soybean. Crop Protection, 29: 1452-1459.
Keusgen, M. 2002. Health and Alliums. In Rabinowitch, H. D. and Currah, L. (Eds.), Allium Crop Science: Recent Advances. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, pp. 357-378.
Kohler, J., Caravaca, F., Carrasco, L. and Roldán, A. 2006. Contribution of Pseudomonas mendocina and Glomus intraradices to aggregate stabilization and promotion of biological fertility in rhizosphere soil of lettuce plants under field conditions. Soil Use and Management, 22: 298-304.
Koide, R. and Elliott, G. 1989. Cost, benefit and efficiency of the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Functional Ecology. 3: 252-255.
Lingua, G., D'agostino, G., Massa, N., Antosiano, M. and Berta, G. 2002. Mycorrhiza-induced differential response to a yellows disease in tomato. Mycorrhiza, 12: 191-198.
Mar Vázquez, M., César, S., Azcón, R. and Barea, J. M. 2000. Interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and other microbial inoculants (Azospirillum, Pseudomonas, Trichoderma) and their effects on microbial population and enzyme activities in the rhizosphere of maize plants. Applied Soil Ecology, 15: 261-272.
Martínez‐Medina, A., Pascual, J. A., Lloret, E. and Roldan, A. 2009. Interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Trichoderma harzianum and their effects on Fusarium wilt in melon plants grown in seedling nurseries. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 89: 1843-1850.
Mazen, M., El-Batanony, N. H., El-Monium, M. M. A. and Massoud, O. 2008. Cultural Filtrate of Rhizobium spp. and Arbuscular Mycorrhiza are Potential Biological Control Agents Against Root Rot Fungal Diseases of Faba Bean. Global Journal of Biotechnology & Biochemistry, 3: 32-41.
Mcallister, C., Garcia-Romera, I., Godeas, A. and Ocampo, J. 1994. Interactions between Trichoderma koningii, Fusarium solani and Glomus mosseae: Effects on plant growth, arbuscular mycorrhizas and the saprophyte inoculants. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 26: 1363-1367.
Phillips, J. and Hayman, D. 1970. Improved procedures for clearing roots and staining parasitic and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 55: 158-161.
Pozo, M. J., Cordier, C., Dumas‐Gaudot, E., Gianinazzi, S., Barea, J. M. and Azcón‐Aguilar, C. 2002. Localized versus systemic effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on defence responses to Phytophthora infection in tomato plants. Journal of Experimental Botany, 53: 525-534.
Rezaee Danesh, Y., Mohammadi Goltapeh, E., Alizadeh, A., Varma, A., and Mukerjii, K.G.2006. Distribution and abundance of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi from soybean rhizosphere in Iran. Journal of Agricultural Technology, 2: 251-257.
Rojo, F. G., Reynoso, M. M., Ferez, M., Chulze, S. N. and Torres, A. M. 2007. Biological control by Trichoderma species of Fusarium solani causing peanut brown root rot under field conditions. Crop Protection, 26: 549-555.
roots and soil micro‐organisms for nutrients from nitrogen‐rich patches of varying Ros, M., Hernandez, M., Garcia, C., Bernal, A. and Pascual, J. 2005. Biopesticide effect of green compost against Fusarium wilt on melon plants. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 98: 845-854.
Singh, P.K., Singh, M. and Vyas, D. 2010. Biocontrol of Fusarium Wilt of Chickpea using Arbuscular Mycor-rhizal Fungi and Rhizobium leguminosorum Biovar. Caryologia, 63: 349-353.
Sivan, A. and Chet, I. 1986. Biological control of Fusarium spp. in cotton, wheat and muskmelon by Trichoderma harzianum. Journal of Phytopathology, 116: 39-47.
Srivastava, R., Khalid, A., Singh, U. and Sharma, A. 2010. Evaluation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, fluorescent Pseudomonas and Trichoderma harzianum formulation against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici for the management of tomato wilt. Biological Control, 53: 24-31.
Šrobárová, A. and Eged, Š. 2005. Trichoderma and sulphoethyl glucan reduce maize root rot infestation and fusaric acid content. Plant Soil Environment, 51: 322-327.
Vigo, C., Norman, J. and Hooker, J. 2001. Biocontrol of the pathogen Phytophthora parasitica by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is a consequence of effects on infection loci. Plant pathology, 49: 509-514.
Wacker, T. L., Safir, G. R. and Stephens, C. T. 1990. Effect of Glomus fasciculatum on the growth of asparagus and the incidence of Fusarium root rot. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 115: 550-554.
Zlata, K. Š., Jelena, L., Stevan, M., Jelica, G. V., Mirjana, V. and Svjetlana, A. 2008. Fusarium rot of onion and possible use of bioproduct. Zbornik Matice Srpske za Prirodne Nauke, 114: 135-148.