1Department of Plant Protection, Aboureihan Campus, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
2Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University, Rafsanjan, Kerman, Iran.
3Agricultural Research Center of Yazd, Yazd, Iran.
Pomegranate fruit moth (PFM), Apomyeloisceratoniae Zeller is a major pest of pomegranate in Iran. In this study, the effect of four diets including pistachio, pomegranate, semi-artificial and artificial diets were studied on biological parameters of PFM in a growth chamber under controlled conditions at 30 ± 2 °C, 65 ± 5% RH and 16:8 (L: D) h. The results demonstrated that the longest incubation period, larval developmental time and preimaginal development time was observed on artificial diet and the shortest was on the pomegranate. The highest and lowest body length of fifth instar larvae were observed on pistachio and artificial diet, respectively. The heaviest weight of third day pupae was recorded for the larvae that were reared on pistachio (0.0275 ± 0.0004 g) while the lightest was on artificial diet (0.0216 ± 0.0004 g). In the next experiment, the effect of four diets was considered to assess the efficiency of pheromone traps in a twenty year old pomegranate orchard cultivated with Malasse Yazdi cultivars. The effect of food on catch of traps showed a significant difference. The virgin PFM that were fed with pomegranate attracted more males. Also the traps caught the males mostly from 11:00 pm until 4:00 am, with the peak time between 23:00 and midnight. No significant difference was seen between diet and time of catch, indicating that starting or ending time and the maximum time of catch was not affected by the diets.
Al-Izzi, M. 1988. Effect of supplemental dietary L-Lysine and soybean flour on growth and fertility of Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Lep: Pyralidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 81: 970-976.
Al-Izzi, M. A., Al-Maliky, S. K. and Jabbo, N. 1987. Culturing the carob moth, Ectomyeloisceratoniae (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), on an artificial diet. Journal of Economic Entomology, 80 (1): 277-280.
Alrubeai, H. 1987. Growth and development of Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Lep: Pyralidae). Journal Stored Products Research, 23: 133-135.
Calatayud, P. A., Guénégo, H., LeRü, B., Silvain, J. F. and Frérot, B. 2007. Temporal patterns of emergence, calling behaviour and oviposition period of the maize stem borer, Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 43 (1): 63-68.
Carey, J. R. 2001. Insect biodemography.Annual Review of Entomology, 46: 79-110.
Dyar, H. G. 1890. The number of molts of lepidopterous larvae. Psyche, 5 (175-176): 420-422.
Fakharzadeh, S. 2004. Investigation on effect of the main components of artificial foods on biological indicators of Carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, Proceeding of 16th Iranian Plant Protection Congress,Tabriz, Iran.
Farazmand, H. 2009. Effect of stamens elimination methods on reducing damages of pomegranate fruit moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Lep.,Pyralidae), Journal of Entomological Research, 1 (2): 159-167.
Ghavami, S. 2006. Effects of three artificial diets on biological characteristics of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Lep.: Pyralidae). Journal of Entomological Society of Iran, 25 (2): 63-76.
Gothilf, S. 1968. The biology of the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zell.) in Israel. I. Mass culture on artificial diet. Israel Journal of Entomology, 3: 109-118.
Gothilf, S. 1970. The biology of the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zell.) in Israel. III. Phenology on various hosts. Israel Journal of Entomology, 5: 161-175.
Gothilf, S. 1984. Biology of Spectrobates ceratoniae on almonds in Israel. Phytoparasitica, 12 (2): 77-87.
Hung, C., Chiang, B. and Wang, W. 2003. Development and fecundity of the Carob moth, Apomyelois ceratoniae, reared on different foods and its eclosion, mating, and ovipositing behavior. Plant Protection Bulletin Taipei, 45 (3): 185-197.
Landolt, P. and Phillips, T. 1997. Host-plant influence on sex pheromone behavior of phytophagous insects. Journal Chemical Ecology, 42: 371-391.
Levinson, H. and Gothlif, S. 1965. A semi artificial diet for axenic growth of the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zell.). Review Parasitology, 22: 19-56.
McNeil, J. and Delisle, J. 1989. Are host plants important in pheromone-mediated mating systems of Lepidoptera? Experientia, 45 (3): 236-240.
Mediouni, J. and Dhouibi, M. 2007. Mass-rearing and field performance of irradiated carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae in Tunisia. Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests, p. 265-273.
Mirkarimi, A. 2002. The effect of stuffing pomegranate neck (calyx) on reduction of pomegranate neck worm Spectrobates ceratoniae Zeller (Lep.:Pyralidae) damage.Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science, 33 (3): 375-383.
Mozaffarian, F., Mardi, M., Sarafrazi, A. and Ganbalani, G. N. 2008. Assessment of geographic and host-associated population variations of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, on pomegranate, fig, pistachio and walnut, using AFLP markers. Journal of Insect Science, 8 (6): 1-9.
Navarro, S., Donahaye, E. and Calderon, M. 1986. Development of the carob moth, Spectrobates ceratoniae, on stored almonds. Phytoparasitica, 14 (3): 177-186.
Noldus, L., Potting, R. 1990. Calling behaviour of Mamestra brassicae: effect of age and photoperiod. Entomological Experimentalis et Applicata, 56 (1): 23-30.
Norouzi, A., Talebi, A. A. and Fathipour, Y. 2008. Development and demographic parameters of the carob moth Apomyelois ceratoniae on four diet regimes. Bulletin of Insectology, 61 (2): 291-297.
Pélozuelo, L., Malosse, C., Genestier, G., Guenego, H. and Frérot, B. 2004. Host-plant specialization in pheromone strains of the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis in France. Journal Chemical Ecology, 30 (2): 335-352.
Shahrokhi, M. and Zare, A. 1994. Effect of collecting and burning of infected fruits in reduction of the population of pomegranate fruit moth, Mashhad: Khorasan Agricultural Research Center.
Shakeri, M. 1992. Effect of infected fruits collection in reduction of the infection of pomegranate fruitmoth, Yazd: Yazd Agricultural Research Center.
Shakeri, M. and Sadatakhavi, Y. 2004. Diseases and pests of pomegranate, Yazd: Tasbih Publications,Iran,126 pp.
Tabatabaii, J. 2011. Comparing of artificial diets for the mass-rearing of carob mouth, Ectomyelois ceratonia Zeller and evaluation of gamma ray doses for male sterility of this pest under laboratory condition.MSc. Dissertation, Vali-e-Asr University, Rafsanjan, 113 pp.
Tan, K. 2000. Area-wide control of fruit flies and other insect pests, Joint proceedings of the international conference on area-wide control of insect pests. Penerbit University Sains, Malaysia.Penang.
Vetter, R., Tatevossian, S. and Baker, T. C. 1997. Reproductive behavior of the female carob moth, (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 73 (1): 28-35.
Vozarayi, A. 1987. History,botanical, ecology and geographic expansion of pomegranate in Iran, Joint Proceedings of the Conference on pomegranate in Iran. Karaj Campus, Tehran University, 20-26.
Zare, D. 2011. Comparison of biological and physiological characteristics of Carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller(Lep.: Pyralidae) on three pomegranate varieties. M. Sc. Dissertation, Guilan University, Guilan, 65 pp.
Ziaadini, M., Goldansaz, H., Ashoori, A. and Ghasempoor, A. 2010. A comparison of the calling behavior and some biological characters of three different geographic populations of Ectomyelois ceratoniae under laboratory conditions.Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science, 41 (1): 81-94.
Zolfagharieh, H., VafayiShooshtari, R., Farazmand, H., Ardakani, M., Babayi, M. and Mostafavi, H. 2009. Using nuclear technology to determine the controller dose of Ectomyelois ceratoniae. Iranian Journal of Entomological, 1 (1): 35-42.