Department of Microbiology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119, India.
In the years 2012-14 a series of extensive surveys for natural enemies of parthenium were conducted in Haryana. During survey, a leaf spot disease has been regularly reported on congress grass at different parts of the Kurukshetra and its adjoining areas.The fungal pathogen was isolated from the affected parts of parthenium leaves and on the basis of cultural, morphological and molecular characteristics, was identified as Alternaria macrospora MKP1. Koch’s postulate was performed and found satisfactory for the isolate and proved to be pathogenic to this weed. The growth of A. macrospora MKP1 was studied on eight different media and it exhibited varying degrees of growth on different media. The literature survey indicates that A. macrospora has never been reported on the parthenium weed and it is the first report of occurrence of this pathogen causing leaf spot disease on parthenium weed from the world.
Adkins, S. and Shabbir, A. 2014. Biology, ecology and management of the invasiveparthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.). Pest Management Science, 70: 1023-1029.
Aggarwal, N. K., Kaur, M., Kumar V. and Saini, A. 2014. Mycobiota associated with Parthenium hysterophorus isolated from North India. Indian Journal of Weed Science, 46: 155-160.
Aneja, K. R. 2003. Experiments in Microbiology, Plant Pathology and Biotechnology. New Age International Publishers, New Delhi.
Aneja, K. R., Khan, S. A. and Kaushal, S. 2000. Management of Horse purslane (Trianthema portulacastrum L.) with Gibbago trianthemae Simmons in India. In: Neal, R. S (Ed.), Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, USA, pp. 27-33.
Aneja, K. R., Kumar, V., Jiloha, P., Kaur, M., Sharma, C., Surain, P., Dhiman, R. and Aneja, A. 2013. Potential bioherbicides: Indian perspectives. In: Salar, R. K., Gahlawat S. K. and Duhan P. J. S. (Eds.), Biotechnology: prospects and applications. Springer, India, pp. 197-215.
Aneja, K. R., Kumar, V. and Sharma, C. 2014. Leaf-spot disease of Trianthema portulacastrum–a new record from world. Journal of Innovative Biology, 1 (2): 112-116.
Castresana, J. 2000. Selection of conserved blocks from multiple alignments for their use in phylogenetic analysis. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 17 (4): 540-52.
Chevenet, F., Brun, C., Banuls, A. L., Jacq, B. and Chisten, R. 2006. TreeDyn: towards dynamic graphics and annotations for analyses of trees. BMC Bioinformatics, 7: 439.
Edgar, R. C. 2004. MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput. Nucleic Acids Research, 19; 32 (5): 1792-7.
Ellis, M. B. 1971. Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, UK.
Ellis, M. B. 1976. More Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, UK.
GISD, 2007. Parthenium hysterophorus. Global Invasive Species Database. http://www.issg. org/database/welcome/.
Guindon, S., Dufayard, J. F., Lefort, V., Anisimova, M., Hordijk, W. and Gascuel, O. 2010. New Algorithms and Methods to Estimate Maximum-Likelihood Phylogenies: Assessing the Performance of PhyML 3.0. Systematic Biology, 59 (3): 307-21.
Kaur, M., Aggarwal, N. K., Kumar, V. and Dhiman, R. 2014. Effects and Management of Parthenium hysterophorus a weed of global significances. International Scholarly Research Notices,doi.org/10.1155/2014/368647.
Kauraw, L. P., Chile, A. and Bhan, V. M. 1997. Evaluation of Fusarium pallidoroseum (Cooke) Sacc. for the biocontrol of Parthenium hysterophorus L. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Parthenium Management, Dharwad, India, pp. 70-74.
Pandey, A. K., Mishra, J. and Hasija, S. K. 1998. Effect of inoculum on mycoherbicidal potential of Sclerotium rolfsii against Parthenium. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 28: 284-287.
Satou, M., Ichinoe, M., Fukumoto, F., Tezuka, N. and Horiuchi, S. 2001. Fusarium Blight of Kangaroo Paw (Anigozanthos spp.) caused by Fusarium chlamydosporum and Fusarium semitectum. Journal of Phytopathology, 149: 203-206.
Satyaprasad, K. and Usharani, P. 1981. Occurrence of powdery mildew on Parthenium caused by Oidium parthenii sp. nov. Current Science, 50: 1081-1082.
Saxena, S. and Kumar, M. 2007. Mycoherbicidal potential of Alternaria alternata ITCC4896 for the control of Parthenium hysterophorus. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 47: 213-218.
Shukla, R. and Pandey, A. K. 2006. Maximization of production of oxalic acid from Sclerotium rolfsii, a mycoherbicidal agent against Parthenium. Annals of Plant Protection Science, 14: 202-205.
Walker, H. L. and Sciumbato, G. L. 1981. Host range studies on four Alternaria isolates pathogenic to cotton (Gossypium spp.) or spurred anoda (Anoda cristata). Plant Science Letters, 22: 71-75.
White, T. J., Bruns, T., Lee, S. and Tailor, S. 1990. Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics, In: Innins, M. A., Gelfand, D. H., Sninsky, J. J. and White, T. J. (Eds.), PCR protocols. A guide to methods and applications. Academic Press, San Diego, California, pp. 315-322.