Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University of Tehran, Iran.
Macrophomina phaseolina is one of the major yield limiting factors of melons in tropical and subtropical regions. For eco-friendly and effective management of the disease, 24 gamma induced mutants from Trichoderma harzianum were evaluated against three isolates of the pathogen representing three geographically different regions viz. Khorasan (isolate 1), Garmsar (isolate 2) and Khuzestan (isolate 3). The isolates of Trichoderma (mutants and wild type) were evaluated against the pathogen in dual culture and through production of volatile and non-volatile inhibitors. Maximum growth inhibition was observed in Th1, Th4, Th15, Th9 and Th22 mutants after three days. In greenhouse evaluation against M. phaseolina (isolate 1) among the inoculated treatments minimum plant infection was observed in Th9 treatment (28% disease reduction) as compared to infected control and among the uninoculated treatments Th1and Th9 mutants resulted in maximum growth of roots and shoots of melon plants as compared to uninfected control. These mutants are introduced as potential candidates against M. Phaseolina. The results proved that gamma-mutagenesis by enhancing the antagonistic properties of T. harzianum 65 can be useful for the biocontrol of soil borne plant pathogens such as Macrophomina phaseolina.
Abd-Elsalam, K, 2010. Genetical and biological control of cotton ashy stem caused by Macrophomina phaseolina in outdoor pot experiment. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 17: 147-152. Adekunle, A., Cardwell, K., Florini, D. and Ikotum, T. 2001. Seed treatment with Trichoderma species for control of damping-off of cowpea caused by Macrophomina phaseolina. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 11 (4): 449-457. Ahari Mostafavi H., Safaie, N., Fathollahi, H., Babaie, M. H. R. Dorri, and Lak, M. R. 2010. Pathological and molecular identification of Fusarium Solani F.Sp. Phaseoli isolates and determination of suitable gamma ray dose rate for mutation induction. Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 51: 48-51. Arora, D. K., Elander, R. P., Mukerji, K. G., 1992. Handbook of Applied Mycology: Fungal Biotechnology (vol. 4). Marcel Dekker, New York. Arora, N., S. Kang, and Maheshwari, D. K. 2001. Isolation of siderophore-producing strains of Rhizobium meliloti and their biocontrol potential against Macrophomina phaseolina that causes charcoal rot of groundnut. Current Science, 81: 673-677. Benitez, T., Delgado-Jarana, J., Rincon, A., Rey, M. and Limon, C. 1998. Biofungicides: Trichoderma as a biocontrol agent against phytopathogenic fungi. Recent Research Developments in Microbiology, 2: 129-150. Bruton B. D. and Miller. E. 1997. Occurrence of Vine Decline Diseases of Melons in Honduras. Plant Disease, 81: 696.3-696.3. Dennis, C. and Webster, J. 1971b. Antagonistic properties of species groups of Trichoderma11. Production of volatile antibiotics. Translations of the British Mycological Society, 57: 41-48. Dennis, C. and Webster, J. 1971c. Antagonistic properties of species groups of Trichoderma111. Hyphal interactions. Translations of the British Mycological Society, 57: 363-369. Dennis, C. and Webster, J. 1971a. Antagonistic properties of species groupsof Trichoderma1. Production of non-volatile antibiotics. Translations of the British Mycological Society, 57: 25-39. Dhingra, O. D. and Sinclair, J. B., 1978. Biology and Pathology of Macrophomina phaseolina. Imprensa da Universidade Federal deViscosa, Brazil, 166 p. Dobey, S. C., Bhavani, R. and Singh, Bi. 2005. Development of Pusa 5SD for seed dressing and Pusa Biopellet 10G for soil application formulations of Trichoderma harzianum and their evaluation for integrated management of dry root rot of mungbean (Vigna radiata), Crop protection, 50: 231-242. Elad, Y. and Chet, I., 1983. Improved selective media for isolation of Trichoderma spp. or Fusarium spp.. Phytoparasitica, 11: 55-58. Elad, Y., Zvieli, Y., and Chet. I. 1986. Biological control of Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid by Trichoderma harzianum. Crop Protection, 5 (4): 288-292. Etebarian, H. 2006. Evaluation of Streptomyces strains for biological control of charcoal stem rot of Melon caused by Macrophomina phaseolina. Plant Pathology Journal, 5 (1): 83-87. Graeme-Cook, K. A. and Faull, J. L. 1991. Effect of ultraviolet induced mutants of Trichoderma harzianum with altered antibiotic production on selected pathogens in vitro. Canadian Journal Microbioogy. 37: 659-664. Haggag, W. M. and Mohamed, H. A. A. 2002. Enhanecment of antifungal metabolite production from gamma-ray induced mutants of some Trichoderma species for control onion white disease. Plant Pathology Bulletin, 11: 45-56. Haggag, W. M. 2008. Induction of hyperproducing chitinase Trichoderma mutants for efficient biocontrol of Botrytis cinerea on tomato and cucumber plants growing in plastic houses. Arab Journal of Biotechnology, 5 (2): 151-164. Harman, G. E. 2000. Myths and dogmas of biocontol: changes in perceptions derived from research on Trichoderma harzianum T22. Plant Disease, 84: 377-393. Harman, G. E., C. R. Howell, A. Viterbo, I. Chet and M. Lorito. 2004. Trichoderma species–opportunistic, avirulent plant symbionts. Nature Review of Microbiology, 2:43-56. Hermosa, M. R., Grondona, I., Iturriaga, E. A., Diaz-Minguez, J. M., Castro, C., Monte, E. and Garcia-Acha, I. 2000. Molecular characterization and identification of biocontrol isolates of Trichoderma spp. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 66: 1890-1898. Jiang, X., Geng, A., He, N. and Q. Li. 2011. New isolate of Trichoderma viride strain for enhanced cellulolytic enzyme complex production. Journal Bioscience and Bioengineering, 111 (2): 121-127. Karthikeyan, V., Sankaralingam, A. and Nakkeeran, S. 2006. Management of groundnut root rot with biocontrol agents and organic amendments. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 39 (3): 215-223. Kovacs, K., Megyeri, L., Szakacs, G. and Kubicek, C. P., Galbe, M. and Zacchi, G. 2008. Trichoderma atroviride mutants with enhanced production of cellulase and glucosidase on pretreated willow. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 43: 48-55. Li, X., Yang, H., Roy, B., Park, EY., Jiang, L. and Wang, D. 2010. Enhanced cellulase production of the Trichoderma viride mutated by microwave and ultraviolet. Microbiological Research, 165 (3): 190-198. Melo, I. S., Faull, J. L. and Graeme-Cook, K. A. 1997. Relationship between in vitro cellulase production of UV-induced mutants of Trichoderma harzianum and their bean rhizosphere competence. Mycological Research, 101: 1389-1392. Mohamed, H. A. L. A and Haggag, W. M. 2006. Biocontrol potential of salinity tolerant mutants of Trichoderma harzianum against Fusarium oxysporum. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 37 (2): 46-57. Moradi R., Shahbazi S., Ahari Mostafavi H. and Askari H., Mirmajlesi M., Ebrahimi M. A. 2012. Optimization of irradiation for Gamma induced mutation in Trichoderma viride, 18th Iranians Nuclear Conference, pp. 22-23. Naar, Z. and Kecsk_es, M. 1998. Factors influencing the competitive saprophytic ability of Trichoderma species. Microbiological Research, 153: 119-129. Papavizas, G. C., Lewis, J. A. and Abd-El Moity, T. H. 1982. Evaluation of new biotypes of Trichoderma harzianum for tolerance to benomyl and enhanced biocontrol capabilities Phytopathology, l72: 126-132. Papavizas, G. C. 1985. Trichoderma and Gliocladium: biology, ecology and potential for biocontrol. Annual Review Phytopathology, 23: 23-54. Rey, M., Delgado-Jarana, J. and Benitez, T. 2001. Improved antifungal activity of a mutant of Trichoderma harzianum CECT 2413 which produces more extracellular proteins. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 55: 604-608. Rifai, M. A., 1969. A revision of the genus Trichoderma. Mycologia, 116: 1-56. Singh, N., Kumar, S., Bajpai, V. K., Dubey, R. C. Maheshwari, D. K. and Kang, S. C. 2010. Biological control of Macrophomina phaseolina by chemotactic fluorescent Pseudomonas aeruginosa PN1 and its plant growth promotory activity in chir-pine. Crop Protection, 29 (10): 1142-1147. Spadaro, D and Lodovica, M. 2005. Improving the efficacy of biocontrol agents against soil borne pathogens. Crop Protection, 24: 601-613. Szekeres, A., Kredics, L., Antal, Z., Kevei, F. and Manczinger, L. 2004. Isolation and characterization of protease overproducing mutants of Trichoderma harzianum. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 233: 215-222. Vaidya, R., Macmil, S. and Vyas, PR. 2003. The novel method for isolating chitinolytic bacteria and its application in screening for hyperchitinase producing mutant of Alcaligenesxylosoxydans. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 36: 129-134. Valiente, C., Diaz, K., Gacitúa, S., Martinez, M. and Sanfuentes, E. 2008. Control of charcoal root rot in Pinus radiata nurseries with antagonistic bacteria. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 24 (4): 557-568. Vasebi, Y., Alizadeh, A. and Safaie, N. 2013. Biological control of soybean charcoal root rot disease using bacterial and fungal antagonists In Vitro and greenhouse condition. Journal of Crop Protection, 2: 139-150. Yedidia, I., Benhamou, N. and Chet, I. 1999. Induction of defense responses in cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) by the biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 65: 1061-1070.