1Department of plant protection, faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.
2Department of plant protection, faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran. University of Ahvaz
3Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of Khuzestan-Ahvaz.
Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosely) is one of the most important pests of the lettuce plant and it was reported for the first time in Ahvaz in 2008. In order to investigate the dominant species of its natural enemies and their population fluctuations, sample were taken arbitrarily from fifty plants twice a week during the growing season in 2010-2012. In this study, ten species of predators, three species of parasitoids and two species of hyperparasitoids were collected and identified. Hoverflies with a relative frequency of 55% were the dominant predators. Peaks of lacewings and subsequently ladybird beetles were more coincident with peaks of aphid population in mid-March in the first year of studies. But their densities in the second year were very low. Also, hoverflies and parasitoids were mainly observed in the high densities in late March-early April, in both years. Regression analysis indicated that populations of aphids were mainly affected by ladybird beetles and lacewings in the first year of study, as well as by ladybird beetles, hoverflies and parasitoids in the second year. Therefore, additional studies are required for further evaluation on the potential abilities of these natural enemies being a good candidates for the future biological control programs.
Bagheri, S., Tavosi, M. and Dehghani, A. 2008. Introduction of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosely) (Hom.: Aphididae) as the most important lettuce aphid in south of Khuzestan province and study on the effect of cultivation date and lettuce cultivars on its population. Proceedings of 18th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, Hamedan, Iran. p. 80. Blackman, R. L. and Eastop, V. F. 2000. Aphids on the World crops: An Identification and Information Guide, second ed. Wiley, Ltd., Chichester, United Kingdom. 476 pp. Bugg, R. L., Colfer, R. G., Chaney, W. E., Smith, H. A. and Cannon, J. 2008. Flower flies (Syrphidae) and other biological control agents for aphids in vegetable crops. University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 8285: 1-25. Bulter, G. D. and Ritchie, P. L. 1970. Development of Chrysopa carnea at constant and fluctuating temperatures. Journal of Economical Entomology. 63: 1028-1030. Diaz, B. M. and Fereres, A. 2005. Life table and population parameters of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) at different constant temperatures. Environmental Entomology, 34 (3): 527-534. Dousti, A. 2000. Fauna and diversity of syrphidae (Diptera) in Ahvaz. MSc. Dissertation, Shahid chamran University of Ahvaz. 129 pp. Gordon, R. D. 1985. The Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) of America north of Mexico. Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 93: 1-912. Griffithes, D. C. 1960. The behaviour and specificity of Monoctonus paludum Marshall (Hym., Braconidae), a parasite of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) on lettuce. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 51 (2): 303-319. Kift, N. B., Mead, A., Reynolds, K., Sime, S., Barber, M. D., Denholm, I. and Tatchell, G. M. 2004. The impact of insecticide resistance in the currant-lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, on pest management in lettuce. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 6: 295-309. Liu, Y. B. 2004. Distribution and population development of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) in iceberg lettuce. Journal of Economic Entomology, 97 (3): 883-890. MacKenzie, J. R. 1986. Improved insect pest management for crisphead lettuce grown in S. W. British Columbia. M. sc. Dissertation, Simon Farser University. 150 pp. Mossadegh, M. S., Stary, P. and Salehipour, H. 2011. Aphid parasitoid in a dry lowland area up Khuzestan, Iran (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiidae). Asian Journal of Biological Sciences, 4 (2): 175-181. Nazari, Y., Zamani, A. A., Masoumi, S. M., Rakhshani, E., Petrović-Obradović, O., Tomanović, S., Starý, P. and Tomanović, Z. 2012. Diversity and host associations of aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) in the farmlands of western Iran. Acta Entomologica Musi Nationalis Pragae, 52 (2): 559-584. Nebreda, M., Michelena, J. M. and Fereres, A. 2005. Seasonal abundance of aphid species on lettuce crops in central Spain and identification of their main parasitoids. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 112 (4): 405-415. Palumbo, J. C. 1999. Perliminary examination of the population dynamics and control of the lettuce aphid on romaine. In: Byrne, D. N. and Baciewicz, P. (Eds.), Vegetable Report, University of Arizona, College of Agriculture, Series P-117, AZ1143, pp. 130-135. Palumbo, J., Mullis, C., Reyes, F. Amaya, A., Ledesma, L. and Cary, L. 2000. Population dynamics and distribution of aphid species on head lettuce in the Yuma valley. In: Byrne, D. N. and Baciewicz, P. (Eds.), Vegetable Report, University of Arizona, College of Agriculture, Series P-117, AZ1143, pp. 69-83. Poole, M. C., Botha, J. H., Berlandier, F. A., Tuten, S. J. and Stuart, M. J. 2004. Final state analysis-lettuce aphid (Nasonovia ribisnigri) into Western Australia via host fruit, vegetables nursery stock, cut flowers and folige. Departmant of Agriculture Government of Werstern Australia. 52 pp. Rezvani, A. 2001. Identify key aphids in Iran. Agriculture Research, Education & Extension Organization. 304 pp. Russell, D. A. 1987. A simple method for improving estimates of percentage parasitism by insect parasitoids from field sampling of hosts. New Zealand Entomologist, 10: 38-40. SAS Institute. 2009. SAS, version 9.2. SAS Institute, Cary, NC. Seraj, A. A. 2009. Principal of pest control. Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. 540 pp. Smith, H. A. and Chaney, W. E. 2007. A survey of syrphid predators of of Nasonovia ribisnigri inorganic lettuce on the central coast of California. Journal of Economic Entomology, 100 (1): 39-48. Smith, H. A., Chaney, W. E. and Bensen, T. A. 2008. Role of syrphid larve and other predators in suppressing aphid infestation in organic lettuce on California’s central coast. Journal of Economic Entomology, 101 (5): 1526-1532. Stary, P. 1976. Aphid parasites of central Asian area. House of Czech. 114 pp. Stufkens, M. A. W. and Teulon, D. A. J. 2003. Distribution, host range and flight pattern of the lettuce aphid in New Zealand. New Zealand Plant Protection, 56: 27-32. Walker, M. K., Stufkens, M. A. W. and Wallace, A. R. 2007. Indirect non-target effects of insecticides on Tasmanian brown lacewing (Micromus tasmaniae) from feeding on lettuce aphid (Nasonovia ribisnigri). Biological Control, 43: 31-40.